A number of studies have pointed out on the dramatic increase of Internet traffic exchanged worldwide,  estimated to reach 168 Exabytes
exchanged per month by 2019, approximately 22 GB per person. Such an increase is based on several reasons: on the one hand the explosive growth of the number of mobile devices (estimated 20 billion by 2020); on the other hand the rise and popularity of new interactive services with strict high-bandwidth low-delay requirements, namely video on-demand, online gaming, P2P file sharing, etc. On top of these, the rise of Smart Cities, Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Big Data suggest that such a percentage of traffic increase may have been underestimated.Thus, there is a big challenge to upgrade access and transport networks to carry such amount of information having into account that not only the traffic volume is the goal: flexibility, programmability and resilience are a fundamental feature for vital systems such as autonomous driving or life-keeping wearable e-health devices and a future-proof networks should be able to guarantee these features. In this context, the goal of ElasticNetworks is meeting the technological challenge of designing a network that makes it possible to base the citizen's life in Fog and Cloud Computing. In particular, ElasticNetworks will contribute to a holistic redesign of the transport network towards a more agile, flexible, programmable Elastic Network, yet with low operation, deployment and maintenance cost, and energy efficient. This will be a superior network with respect to today's in terms of performance, capable of provisioning network capacity where needed, with a dynamic and mobile network with high bandwidth granularity, capable of dealing with the advent of the all-connected smart world. ElasticNetworks will contribute to such a technological revolution in which the network becomes a single programmable entity, starting from the Data Center supporting the Cloud and ending in the very last user's or thing's device.